Tag Archives: map

A map of research paths and subjects touched on this blog

The map is not complete, I intend to modify it in time. I would love to have an enhanced version of this map with the possibility to click on the nodes and on the edges of the graph and get as a result a list of links to posts and articles, or any other material.  How can I do that?

Here is the map. With red are marked nodes or paths which have been explored (or which are trivial, like the path linking qubits and vector spaces, for example). With black are marked the nodes or paths which I intend to explore.

bigmap

Not present on this map are subjects which interest me a lot, like understanding vision, neural connectomics and other subjects related to computing with space.

Two papers on arXiv

I put on arxiv two papers

The paper Computing with space contains too may ideas, is too dense, therefore much of it will not be read, as I was warned repeatedly. This is the reason to do again what I did with Introduction to metric spaces with dilations, which is a slightly edited part of the paper A characterization of sub-riemannian spaces as length dilation structures. Apparently the part (Introduction to ..), the small detail,  is much more read  than the whole (A characterization…).

Concerning the second paper “Normed groupoids…”, it is an improvement of the older paper. Why did I not updated the older paper? Because I need help, I just don’t understand where this is going (and why such direction of research was not explored before).

Topographica, the neural map simulator

The following speaks for itself:

 Topographica neural map simulator 

“Topographica is a software package for computational modeling of neural maps, developed by the Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation at the University of Edinburgh and the Neural Networks Research Group at the University of Texas at Austin. The project is funded by the NIMH Human Brain Project under grant 1R01-MH66991. The goal is to help researchers understand brain function at the level of the topographic maps that make up sensory and motor systems.”

From the Introduction to the user manual:

“The cerebral cortex of mammals primarily consists of a set of brain areas organized as topographic maps (Kaas et al. 1997Vanessen et al. 2001). These maps contain systematic two-dimensional representations of features relevant to sensory, motor, and/or associative processing, such as retinal position, sound frequency, line orientation, or sensory or motor motion direction (Blasdel 1992Merzenich et al. 1975Weliky et al. 1996). Understanding the development and function of topographic maps is crucial for understanding brain function, and will require integrating large-scale experimental imaging results with single-unit studies of individual neurons and their connections.”

One of the Tutorials is about the Kohonen model of self-organizing maps, mentioned in the post  Maps in the brain: fact and explanations.

Entering “chora”, the infinitesimal place

There is a whole discussion around the key phrases “The map is not the territory” and “The map is the territory”. From the wiki entry on the map-territory relation, we learn that Korzybski‘s dictum “the map is not the territory” means that:

A) A map may have a structure similar or dissimilar to the structure of the territory,

B) A map is not the territory.

Bateson, in “Form, Substance and Difference” has a different take on this: he starts by explaining the pattern-substance dichotomy

Let us go back to the original statement for which Korzybski is most famous—the statement that the map is not the territory. This statement came out of a very wide range of philosophic thinking, going back to Greece, and wriggling through the history of European thought over the last 2000 years. In this history, there has been a sort of rough dichotomy and often deep controversy. There has been violent enmity and bloodshed. It all starts, I suppose, with the Pythagoreans versus their predecessors, and the argument took the shape of “Do you ask what it’s made of—earth, fire, water, etc.?” Or do you ask, “What is its pattern?” Pythagoras stood for inquiry into pattern rather than inquiry into substance.1 That controversy has gone through the ages, and the Pythagorean half of it has, until recently, been on the whole the submerged half.

Then he states his point of view:

We say the map is different from the territory. But what is the territory? […] What is on the paper map is a representation of what was in the retinal representation of the man who made the map–and as you push the question back, what you find is an infinite regress, an infinite series of maps. The territory never gets in at all.

Always the process of representation will filter it out so that the mental world is only maps of maps of maps, ad infinitum.

At this point Bateson puts a very interesting footnote:

Or we may spell the matter out and say that at every step, as a difference is transformed and propagated along its pathways, the embodiment of the difference before the step is a “territory” of which the embodiment after the step is a “map.” The map-territory relation obtains at every step.

Inspired by Bateson, I want to explore from the mathematical side the point of view that there is no difference between the map and the territory, but instead the transformation of one into another can be understood by using tangle diagrams.

Let us imagine that the exploration of the territory provides us with an atlas, a collection of maps, mathematically understood as a family of two operations (an “emergent algebra”). We want to organize this spatial information in a graphical form which complies with Bateson’s footnote: map and territory have only local meaning in the graphical representation, being only the left-hand-side (and r-h-s respectively) of the “making map” relation.

Look at the following figure:

In the figure from the left, the “v” which decorates an arc, represents a point in the “territory”, that is the l-h-s of the relation, the “u” represents a “pixel in the map”, that is the r-h-s of a relation. The relation itself is represented by a crossing decorated by an epsilon, the “scale” of the map.

The opposite crossing, see figure from the right, is the inverse relation.

Imagine now a complex diagram, with lots of crossings, decorated by various
scale parameters, and segments decorated with points from a space X which
is seen both as territory (to explore) and map (of it).

In such a diagram the convention map-territory can be only local, around each crossing.

There is though a diagram which could unambiguously serve as a symbol for
“the place (near) the point x, at scale epsilon” :

In this diagram, all crossings which are not decorated have “epsilon” as a decoration, but this decoration can be unambiguously placed near the decoration “x” of the closed arc. Such a diagram will bear the name “infinitesimal place (or chora) x at scale epsilon”.

A difference which makes four differences, in two ways

Gregory Bateson , speaking about the map-territory relation

“What is in the territory that gets onto the map? […] What gets onto the map, in fact, is difference.

A difference is a very peculiar and obscure concept. It is certainly not a thing or an event. This piece of paper is different from the wood of this lectern. There are many differences between them, […] but if we start to ask about the localization of those differences, we get into trouble. Obviously the difference between the paper and the wood is not in the paper; it is obviously not in the wood; it is obviously not in the space between them .

A difference, then, is an abstract matter.

Difference travels from the wood and paper into my retina. It then gets picked up and worked on by this fancy piece of computing machinery in my head.

… what we mean by information — the elementary unit of information — is a difference which makes a difference.

(from “Form, Substance and Difference”, Nineteenth Annual Korzybski Memorial
Lecture delivered by Bateson on January 9, 1970, under the auspices of the Institute of General Semantics, re-printed from the General Semantics Bulletin, no.
37, 1970, in Steps to an Ecology of Mind (1972))

This “difference which makes a difference” statement is quite famous, although sometimes considered only a figure of speach.

I think it is not, let me show you why!

For me a difference can be interpreted as an operator which relates images of the same thing (from the territory) viewed in two different maps, like in the following picture:

This figure is taken from “Computing with space…” , see section 1 “The map is the territory” for drawing conventions.

Forget now about maps and territories and concentrate on this diagram viewed as a decorated tangle. The rules of decorations are the following: arcs are decorated with “x,y,…”, points from a space, and the crossings are decorated with epsilons, elements of a commutative group (secretly we use an emergent algebra, or an uniform idempotent right quasigroup, to decorate arcs AND crossings of a tangle diagram).

What we see is a tangle which appears in the Reidemeister move 3 from knot theory. When epsilons are fixed, this diagram defines a function called (approximate) difference.

Is this a difference which makes a difference?

Yes, in two ways:

1. We could add to this diagram an elementary unknot passing under all arcs, thus obtaining the diagram

Now we see four differences in this equivalent tangle: the initial one is made by three others.
The fact that a difference is selfsimilar is equivalent with the associativity of the INVERSE of the approximate difference operation, called approximate sum.

2. Let us add an elementary unknot over the arcs of the tangle diagram, like in the following figure

called “difference inside a chora” (you have to read the paper to see why). According to the rules of tangle diagrams, adding unknots does not change the tangle topologically (although this is not quite true in the realm of emergent algebras, where the Reidemeister move 3 is an acceptable move only in the limit, when passing with the crossing decorations to “zero”).

By using only Reidemeister moves 1 and 2, we can turn this diagram into the celtic looking figure

which shows again four differences: the initial one in the center and three others around.

This time we got a statement saying that a difference is preserved under “infinitesimal parallel transport”.

So, indeed, a difference makes four differences, in at least two ways, for a mathematician.

If you want to understand more from this crazy post, read the paper 🙂

Maps in the brain: fact and explanations

From wikipedia

Retinotopy describes the spatial organization of the neuronal responses to visual stimuli. In many locations within the brain, adjacent neurons have receptive fields that include slightly different, but overlapping portions of the visual field. The position of the center of these receptive fields forms an orderly sampling mosaic that covers a portion of the visual field. Because of this orderly arrangement, which emerges from the spatial specificity of connections between neurons in different parts of the visual system, cells in each structure can be seen as forming a map of the visual field (also called a retinotopic map, or a visuotopic map).

See also tonotopy for sounds and the auditory system.

The existence of retinotopic maps is a fact, the problem is to explain how they appear and how they function without falling into the homunculus fallacy, see my previous post.

One of the explanations of the appearance of these maps is given by Teuvo Kohonen.

Browse this paper (for precise statements) The Self-Organizing map , or get a blurry impression from this wiki page. The last paragraph from section B. Brain Maps reads:

It thus seems as if the internal representations of information in the brain are generally organized spatially.

Here are some quotes from the same section, which should rise the attention of a mathematician to the sky:

Especially in higher animals, the various cortices in the cell mass seem to contain many kinds of “map” […] The field of vision is mapped “quasiconformally” onto the primary visual cortex. […] in the visual areas, there are line orientation and color maps. […] in the auditory cortex there are the so-called tonotopic maps, which represent pitches of tones in terms of the cortical distance […] at the higher levels the maps are usually unordered, or at most the order is a kind of ultrametric topological order that is not easy interpretable.

Typical for self-organizing maps is that they use (see wiki page) “a neighborhood function to preserve the topological properties of the input space”.

From the connectionist viewpoint, this neighbourhood function is implemented by lateral connections between neurons.

For more details see for example Maps in the Brain: What Can We Learn from Them? by Dmitri B. Chklovskii and Alexei A. Koulakov. Annual Review of Neuroscience 27: 369-392 (2004).

Also browse Sperry versus Hebb: Topographic mapping in Isl2/EphA3 mutant mice by Dmitri Tsigankov and Alexei A. Koulakov .

Two comments:

1. The use of a neighbourhood function is much more than just preserving topological information. I tentatively propose that such neighbourhood functions appear out of the need of organizing spatial information, like explained in the pedagogical paper from the post Maps of metric spaces.

2. Just to reason on discretizations (like hexagonal or other) of the plane is plain wrong, but this is a problem encountered in many many places elsewhere. It is wrong because it introduces the (euclidean) space on the back door (well, this and using happily an L^2 space).