Category Archives: computation

Cryptocurrency for life (2)

Continues from (part 1). Back home and almost healed I read Anand Giridharadas crusade where he has a very reasonable point:

“But then I had the following thought.

Why are the people not connected to Epstein leaving this orbit, while people connected to Epstein remain?

Shouldn’t it be the other way around?”

To have a direct confirmation of these self-protected circles of power is interesting. Rich donors and academia are some of the players. I’m directly interested about this from the point of view of somebody who tries to do Open Science since a long time: to paraphrase Anand

Why are the people not obeying old practices of academic publication leaving this orbit, while people connected with the useless legacy publishers remain?

Shouldn’t it be the other way round?


The same academic managers are in so friendly relations with publishers which do not offer anything to the scientific community. The honest effort of Open Access has become a caricature where it is entirely normal to baptize the_author_pays_for_publication as the way to do Open Access.

OK, so what is this having to do with the subject of this post? Simple: if the cryptocurrencies communities do want to explore new social models then research (of biological life as decentralized computing, as I suggest) should be a part of it. You can’t turn to the old fatigued elites, because they already gave what they can do to MS or others alike. They don’t have new ideas since a very long time. Hot air with old boys support.

But now comes my point: would these cryptocurrencies efforts support a new research structure? Why not? There are very clever people there who understand the importance.

But maybe they are in bed with the circle of power. Just maybe.

The following are beliefs only (what proof can you ask?). For reasons along the lines explained previously, since years I’m very skeptical about anything ethereum based, but I am really amazed by btc. Well, but who really know?

Does not the cryptocurrency community (or the parts of it which are not in bed with the enemy) want to make a point in research?




Cryptocurrency for life

Biological life is a billions years old experiment. The latest social experiments, capitalism and communism, are much more recent. Cryptocurrencies experiments are a really new response to the failures of those social experiments.

We don’t really understand biological life starting from it’s computational principles. As well, we don’t understand in depth decentralized computation which is at the basis of many cryptocurrencies experiments.

My point is that we try to solve the same problem, so that we shall be able to evolve socially at a human time scale. Not in hundred thousands years, in decades instead.

Therefore it would be only natural if the active people in the cryptocurrency realm would dedicate significant financial support to the problem of life.

10-node quine can duplicate

Only recently I became aware that sometimes the 10-node quine duplicates. Here is a screenshot, at real speed, of one such duplication.


You can see for yourself by playing find-the-quine, either here or here.

Pick from the menu “10_nodes quine” or “original 10 nodes quine” (depending on where you play the game), then use “start”. When the quine dies just hit the “reload” button. From time to time you’ll see that it duplicates.  Most of times this quine is short lived, sometimes it lives long enough to make you want to hit “reload” before it dies.



Chemlambda and hapax

I wrote an expository text about chemlambda and hapax (and interaction combinators). You can see clearly there how hapax works differently and, as well, clear exposition of several conventions used, about the type of graphs and the differences in the treatment of rewrites.

Chemlambda and hapax

Please let me know if you have any comments.

What is the purpose of the project Hapax?

“hapax” means “only once” in ancient Greek. You may have seen it in the form hapax legomenon, quote: ” a word that occurs only once within a context, either in the written record of an entire language, in the works of an author, or in a single text”.

After a bit of research I found the correct, I hope, form that I  use for this project:


It reads “hapax cheon” and it means, again in ancient Greek, “poured only once”.

Why this? Because, according to this wiki link, “the Greek word χυμεία khumeia originally meant “pouring together””.

The motivation of the project hapax comes from the realization that we only explored a tiny drop in the sea of possibilities. As an example, just look at lambda calculus, one of the two pillars of computation. Historically there are many reasons to consider lambda calculus something made in heaven, or a platonic ideal.

But there are 14400 = 5! X 5! alternatives to the iconic beta rewrite only. Is the original beta special or not?

By analogy with the world of CA, about a third of cellular automata are Turing universal. My gues is that a significant fraction of the alternatives to the beta rewrite are as useful as the original beta.

When we look at lambda calculus from this point of view, we discover that all the possible alternatives, not only of beta, but of the whore graph rewriting formalism, say in the form of chemlambda, all these alternative count a huge number, liek 10^30 in the most conservative estimates.

Same for interaction combinators. Same for knot theory. Same for differential calculus (here I use em).

I started to collect small graph rewrite systems which can be described with the same formalism.

The formalism is based on a formulation which uses exclusively permutations (for the “chemistry”  and Hamiltonian mechanics side) and a principle of dissipation which accounts for the probabilistic side.

The goal of the project hapax is to build custom worlds (physics and chemistry)

“poured only once”

which can be used to do universal computation in a truly private way. Because once the rules of computation are private,  this leads to the fact that the who;le process of computation becomes incomprehensible.

Or is it so? Maybe yes, maybe not. How can we know, without trying?

That is why I starded to make the hapax stuff.

For the moment is not much, only demos like this one, but the rest will pass from paper to programs, then we’ll play.


Hapax chemlambda

Chemistry is a game with a pair of dices.

You roll two dices and act. The dices are permutohedra.

Which leads to ask what certain chemistries (artificial or real) have so special. The conjecture is that (probabilistically speaking) a sizeable proportion of them are special.

For example, we can evade the lambda calculus by choosing one of the  14400 rewrites for ( β with random right patterns) .

Hapax chemlambda!

Stick-and-ring graphs (I)

Until now the thread on small graph rewrite systems (last post here) was about rewrites on a family of graphs which I call “unoriented stick-and-ring graphs”. The page on small graph rewrite systems contains several formalisms, among them IC2, SH2 and system X are on unoriented stick-and-ring graphs and chemlambda strings is with oriented edges. Emergent algebras and Interaction Combinators are with oriented nodes. Pseudoknots are stick-and-ring graphs with oriented nodes and edges.

In this post I want to make clear what unoriented stick-and-ring graphs are, with the help of some drawings.

Practically an unoriented stick-and-ring graph is a graph with colored nodes, of valence 1, 2 or 3, which admit edges with the ends on the same node. We imagine that the nodes have 1, 2, or 3 ports and any edge between two nodes joins a port of one with a port of another one. Supplementary, we accept loops with no nodes and moreover any 3-valent node has a marked port.


If we split each 3-valent node into two half-nodes, one of them with the one marked port, the other with the remaing two ports, then we are left with a collection of disjoint connected graphs made of 1-valent or 2-valent nodes.


These graphs can be either sticks, i.e. they have 2 ends which are 1-valent nodes, or they can be rings, i.e. they are made entirely of 2-valent nodes.


It follows that we can recover our initial graph by gluing along  the sticks ends on other sticks or rings. We use dotted lines for gluing in the next figure.


A drawing of an unoriented stick-and-ring graph is an embedding of the graph in the plane. Only the combinatorial information matters. Here is another depiction of the same graph.marked-graphs-3